The Renaissance a thousand years later marked the conscious return to the classical heritage. To contrast the Eastern Roman Empire to its Western counterpart, the East had numerous advantages , that is, economic, institutional and military, that allowed it to survive the fall of the West. However, differences also occurred amongst their achievements. Roman commerce was very frequent during the Pax Romana. Both ideologies stressed loyalty to the emperor. Introduction. Their development was steady and with the right leader, both civilizations were … The Roman had extensive art depicting war valor and the honoring of leaders like Julius Caesar and Augustus. Gabriel, Richard A. Italy is considered the richest region, due to tax transfers from the provinces and the concentration of elite income in the heartland; its GDP per capita is estimated at having been around 40%[22] to 66%[23] higher than in the rest of the empire. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics, Cambridge University Press, p.29, Gibbon, Edward, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Volume 6, pg 126. ; cf. Though Roman and Han political structures, both emphasized bureaucracies, they came to … However, Roman women were quite free and had greater control over their wealth and property than preceding states in the Mediterranean. Comparing the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. The Emperor Wu was astonished at the quality of the pork, and he asked the official how the pork was made so good. The Roman Empire had gradually been losing power to the Huns and other barbarian tribes like the Visigoths to the point where Rome was sacked in in 410 causing the western part of the Roman empire to be on the brink of collapse until the final blow was struck when a revolt killed the final emperor of the Western Roman Empire. HIRE verified writer $35.80 for a 2-page paper. In order to facilitate trade and promote unity among the people, the Qin dynasty standardized measurements for weights, coins, writing, and even the length of wheels. This spanned more than 250,000 miles (400,000 km) of roads, including more than 50,000 miles (80,500 km) of paved roads. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Liu, Xujie (2002). The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. Roman emperors ruled over the Empire with similar authority[54]. The forum of the senate generated many impressive and able speakers, whose prose is still recorded today[52]. This thought had the effect of weakening the nobility and strengthening the emperor. 365f. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Both of these empires utilize the policies and practices of previous political governments to help ensure their success. Afterward, the Huns attacked the Romans themselves. [65], The Han built fortified roadways and extensive walls & fortifications that served as both deterrent to the Confederacy of nomadic kingdoms to the north, and to protect traders and merchants along the silk road. The profit margin is ten to one.[7]. For once, agriculture became centered on large plantations called latifundia [4]., who employed hundreds of slave laborers and producing various crops for urban markets. to 476 C.E. One Jin author described one of these incidents. Huns were first defeated by Han dynasty and drove out of Asia into Europe. They believed that a Savior would come who was the Son of God, and he would save them from their sins. (1986c). Han Dynasty and Roman Empire (Compare and Contrast) 8 August 2016 The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. [28] The Roman production of copper, the basis for bronze and brass alloys, remained unsurpassed again until the Industrial Revolution. The Han used Confucian thought as the primary ideology of the empire, in which the welfare of the people was the concern of the state and the basis of legitimate rule. are two well-known classical empires. However, in the later stages of the Han empire, a major problem arose: the Han landowners' accumulation of land, along with the state's taxes, resulted in a large horde of landless peasants from which costly rebellions occurred. [39] While the population size of the Roman empire has been traditionally given as 55-60 million, recent estimates of its demographic peak in the mid-2nd century AD range from 60-70 million ("low count") to over 100 million inhabitants ("high count").[40]. Cursive numbers not directly given by the authors; they are obtained by multiplying the respective value of GDP per capita by estimated population size. While the Roman rulers organized a state religion [45] and the emperors took a big part in it, the Han emperors were more secular; they acknowledged the existence of the gods and took part in ceremonies, but were for the most part unconcerned with them[46]. Roman Empire Vs. Han Dynasty Compare And Contrast Essay Both the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were similar in their fall, in that they suffered through significant factors like Germanic Invasions that made them decline in power. The Roman civilization would never recover. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp ,Page 240-245. Metal production would have further decreased during the Qing Dynasty's collapse and subsequent civil wars in the early 20th century. Account of the Western Regions, Hou Han Shu, Gan Ying, <, Princeton University, Monetary systems of the Roman and Han Empires, <. They both feel due to internal struggles, while the Roman Empire also faced external threats. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty faced similar problems of barbarian invasions and internal infighting. New Haven: Yale University Press. All rights reserved, Han Dynasty and Roman Empire (Compare and Contrast). The Romans, however, traded with the Middle East, Italy, India, and China. [67] Fortified Han roadways were built as far west as Shanshan (Loulan) near the Lop Desert, while Han forces utilized routes that traversed north of the Taklamakan Desert towards Kashgar. (1971). Many of these were related to each empire’s economy, government, and social structure. Similarly, both empires were large; they covered large geographical areas with huge populations. In enhancing administration, both empires were divided into distinct territories, for instance, the Roman was divided into provinces whereas the Mongol was divided into four major divisions. All the attacks from the barbarians caused problems in the military. He replied "Of course the pork is excellent! These men also helped link the central government with local society. - [Steve] Well, let's start with the obvious point there that there is a division. There have been some rough estimates of Han and the Roman industry based on the metallurgical production of later dynasties and time periods. 365f. Patterson 1972, p. 216, table 2; Callataÿ 2005, pp. Forced labour by peasants for the state was reduced from one month a year to ten days every three years. This process helped knowledgeable people become civil servants; because of this scholars became the most elite persons in Chinese society. Chinese innovations in agriculture were also important; the introduction of the cow-driven plow, iron farm tools, water mills, the wheelbarrow and other technologies greatly improved the agriculture of the Han. Private production still existed during times when the state monopoly was in place. Combined [73] with new religious movements such as Christianity, led to many Roman citizens becoming apathetic [74] to the state of the empire. Shaowin emperor of Northern Wei, ruler of North China who himself was a non-Chinese, prohibited speaking of languages other than Chinese in his realm. The Han Dynasty, on the other hand, provided the basis for culture and government in China, one of the most powerful Eastern influences. To the Romans this peaceful time was known as Pax Romana, to the Chinese it was known as Pax Sinica. They pioneered a political system and social structure in China that lasted for almost 2,000 years. Edited by Nancy S. Steinhardt. 58–66. The Roman’s developed two different codes of law, one that applied to citizens and another that applied to non-citizens. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp , Page 270-272. Rome imported grain from Africa. and All of these innovations sparked a massive increase in the production of agricultural, mined, and manufactured goods[6]. This was not so much a religion as it was more a set of rules and guidelines for a person’s behavior, thoughts, and actions. Roman Empire. The influence of the nobility was also weaker as the new merchant class asserted its presence and wealth energetically; the Han abolished hereditary positions. Considering the Byzantine Empire was also included in this analysis (with a population of about 10 million), this indicates how badly Rome was devastated. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp , 2001. Chapter 7 summary of W.W. Norton & Company, Worlds apart, Worlds together, A History of the world, second edition. [57] A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 timber bridges and 54 aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and even used to carry vehicles. to 476 C.E. The Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were both powerful influential forces in their heyday. Michael Grant, History of Rome (New York: Charles Scribner, 1978), 264. Roman society was a relatively hierarchical society. This gave the Chinese an advantage because their goods were in high demand in the Roman cities, while Roman glassware was exported to China. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? In Rome Christianity was widely adopted, first by the people and then by the state. Even though these two civilizations held many differences, they also shared rulers who personally oversaw their governments to prevent numerous dilemmas and used expansive trade routes to build up their economies and further their influence in the world. [38], The Han population is estimated to be around 60 million at around 2AD. Both of these cultures obtained peace at the peak of their trading and economic prosperity. Han China and Rome’s Empires had the same causes for their declines, but their effects are different. This basically led to a lot of political turmoil because of all the chaos that was born, and it started to make the military crumble as well. This policy was reverted after the coming of the Han.[12]. China, however, used a single code of law for all their citizens and conquered peoples, and used a long and treacherous trail in their trade; that lead to the Middle East. Roman Empire-West Each social group had well-defined roles. The essence of Roman society was relationships governed by laws and courts. Music and entertainment were separated from rituals, with the exception of funeral rites which were taken very seriously.[43]. That being said, they also shared an extensive variety of similarities. Late during the Han dynasty, aristocrats' accumulation of land in massive quantities forced large numbers of peasants off their lands. Ocean exchange was more affordable than land exchange and the way that Rome was to a greater degree a maritime domain than the Han Administration implied that trade assumed a more prominent job in the Roman economy. As with other ancient economies, agriculture was the basis of Roman economy. Ten silver coins are worth one gold coin.They trade with Anxi (Parthia) and Tianzhu (Northwestern India) by sea. [60][61] When Rome reached the height of her supremacy, no fewer than 29 great military highways radiated from the city. Available at SSRN: Robertson, D.S. [47]. 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